Genealogy of Moslem Brotherhood dan Al Qaida in the Middle East
Historically, the rise of terrorism by radical Islamic groups in the Middle East has its
roots in the spirit of resistance to Western colonialism in the early nineteenth century.
There are two movements that have a big influence and inspire the emergence of
similar movements in the Middle East, the Ikhwan Al Muslimin (IM) and Al Qaeda (AQ).
This paper examines the roots of IM and Al Qaeda movements, and how the powerknowledge
relation takes place. The theory used in this research is genealogy which
seeks to examine the historical aspect and its relation to the formulation of power
and politics; as well as the theory of Islamism, namely describing aspects of Islamic
ideology, Islamic political movements, and socio-economic aspects. The findings of
this article explain that IM and AQ have historically been rooted in the resistance
movement against the West. Sayyid Qutb’s thoughts became the initial inspiration
for the radicalization of IM activists, such as Muhammad Faraj, Ayman Al Zawahiri,
and Osama bin Laden, so they built more extreme militias, such as Al Jihad and Al
Qaeda. IM was originally a social organization and eventually involved in practical
politics. Methods of Islamic movement based on cultural approach make IM widely
accepted by Egyptian society, so that ever managed to win in election and be in elite
circle of power. On the contrary, AQ is conducting a resistance movement againts the
West as well as governments in Muslim countries that are considered anti-Islamic by
the method of terror, so it always marginal in public opinion of Muslim society.