Domestic Factors Affecting Iran's Foreign Policy towards Saudi Arabia Post Execution of Nimr Al Nimr

  • Hilal Kholid Bajri Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Akim Akim Universitas Padjadjaran
Keywords: domestic factor, foreign policy, Iran, Nimr Al Nimr, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

This article explains the factors that influenced Iran's foreign policy towards Saudi Arabia after Nimr Al Nimr execution in 2016. Nimr Al Nimr is a well-respected Shia cleric in the Middle East. As the country with the largest Shia population globally, Iran condemned Saudi Arabia's actions so that relations between the two countries deteriorated, even leading to the severance of diplomatic relations. The research question posed is what the domestic factors that influence the policy are? This article is based on qualitative research by interviewing several Middle Eastern experts and collecting data from documents and mass media. In analyzing the data, the writers used the theory from Mintz and DeRouen regarding three domestic factors that influence a country's foreign policy, namely economic interests, the role of public opinion, and the electoral cycle. The research finds that the foreign policy taken by Iran after the execution of Nimr Al Nimr is closely related to economic interests, especially related to the implementation of the pilgrimage; in line with the opinion of the Iranian people who highly respect Nimr Al Nimr; and consideration of the electoral cycle, where the policies taken by Rouhani affected his victory in the 2017 elections.

References

AFP. (2021). Iran says ‘good atmosphere’ in talks with Saudi Arabia on restoring ties. [online]. Dalam https://www.timesofisrael.com/iran-says-good-atmosphere-in-talks-with-saudi-arabia-on-restoring-ties/ [Diakses 10 Juni 2021].

Amiri, R,E., Samsu, K, H, B,K., and Fereidouni, H, G. (2011) The Hajj and Iran’s foreign policy towards Saudi Arabia. Journal of Asian and African Studies, [online] 46(6), 678-690. Dalam: doi: 10.1177/0021909611417546 [Diakses 2 Januari 2021].

AP. (1998). Rafsanjani Visits Saudi Arabia. [online]. Dalam https://apnews.com/article/77430abcda25f8ce15f9d6e9368b4ae0 [Diakses 2 Januari 2021].

Banerjee, N. (2011). Saudi Arabia ‘day of rage’ protest fizzles. [online]. Dalam: https://www.latimes.com/world/la-xpm-2011-mar-12-la-fg-saudi-unrest-20110312-story.html [Diakses 11 Februarii 2021].

BBC 2016a: Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr: Saudi Arabia executes top Shia cleric. [online]. Dalam: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35213244 [Diakses 17 Februari 2021].

BBC 2016b: Iran 'will not send pilgrims to Saudi Arabia' for Hajj. [online]. Dalam: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36277234 [Diakses 17 Februari 2021].

britannica.com. (2021). Iran-Iraq war. [online]. Dalam https://www.britannica.com/event/Iran-Iraq-War [Diakses 11 Februari 2021].

Dehghan, S, K. (2015) Rouhani Criticises Saudi Arabia over hajj crush in UN speech, The Guardian. The Guardian, [online]. Dalam: https://www.theguardian.com/world/iran-blog/2015/sep/28/rouhani-criticises-saudi-arabia-iranian-deaths-hajj-crush-un-general-assembly [Diakses 23 Januari 2021].

Fitch, A. et al. (2015). Iran Doubles Number of Iranian Dead in Hajj Stampede. Wall Street Journal, [online] Dalam: https://www.wsj.com/articles/iran-doubles-number-of-iranian-dead-in-hajj-stampede-1443694146 [Diakses 15 Februari 2021].

Financial Tribune. (2016). Iran-Saudi Trade in Retrospect. [online]. Dalam https://financialtribune.com/articles/economy-domestic-economy/33819/iran-saudi-trade-in-retrospect [Diakses 18 Februari 2021].

Graham, D. F. and Wilson, & P. W. (1994) Saudi Arabia: The Coming Storm, Saudi Arabia: The Coming Storm. New York: Sharpe.

Hadžikadunić, E. (2019) Insight 215: Iran–Saudi Ties: Can History Project Their Trajectory? [online] Middle East Institute National University of Singapore. Dalam: https://mei.nus.edu.sg/publication/insight-215-iran-saudi-ties-can-history-project-their-trajectory/ [Diakses 26 Februari 2021].

Hooglund, E. (1992). The Persian Gulf. In P. Schraeder (Ed.), Intervention into the 1990s: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Third World. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner.

Keynoush, B. (2016). Saudi Arabia and Iran Friend or Foes? New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Khalaji, M. (2017). Ideology Outweighs Diplomacy in Iran's Hajj Decision. [online] Washington Institute. Dalam: https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/ideology-outweighs-diplomacy-irans-hajj-decision [Diakses 10 Juni 2021]

Kireev, A. (2009). Iran Presidential Election 2009. Electoral Geography, [online] Dalam: https://www.electoralgeography.com/new/en/countries/i/iran/iran-presidential-election-2009.html [Diakses 10 April 2021].

Kramer, M. (1996). Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival. New Brunswick: Transaction Publisher.

Mintz, A. and DeRouen, K. (2010) Understanding foreign policy: Decision making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, E. (2013). Rouhani to forgo Hajj, Tehran official says. The Times of Israel, [online]. Dalam: https://www.timesofisrael.com/rouhani-to-forgo-hajj-tehran-official-says/ [Diakses 22Januari 2021].

Morin, J. F., & Paquin, J. (2018). Foreign policy analysis: A toolbox. London: PalgraveMacmillan

Morello,C., & Cunningham, E. (2016). Iran’s president labels attackers at Saudi Embassy criminals. The Washington Post, [online]. Dalam: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/iraq-offers-to-mediate-in-saudi-iran-split-amid-fears-of-pending-disaster/2016/01/06/fd3cf816-b40c-11e5-8abc-d09392edc612_story.html [Diakses 22 Februari 2021].

Oxford Analytica Daily Brief. (2017). Iran: Presidential election results. [online]. Dalam: https://dailybrief.oxan.com/Analysis/GI221838/Iran-Presidential-election-results-2017 [Diakses 10 April 2020].

Shafaqna (2017). Saudi Arabia ups Iran’s Hajj quota by 35 percent. [online]. Dalam: https://en.shafaqna.com/46241/saudi-arabia-ups-irans-hajj-quota-by-35-percent/ [Diakses 17 March 2020].

Shahram, A., & Dara, C. (2016). Iran in the world : President Rouhani’s foreign policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Sharafedin, B. (2016). Iran court issues verdict for suspects in Saudi embassy attack. Reuters, [online]. Dalam: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-saudi-trial/iran-court-issues-verdict-for-suspects-in-saudi-embassy-attack-idUSKBN12W3T1 [Diakses 17 Januari 2021].

Sola, K. (2016). Breaking With Iran Could Cost Saudi Arabia Billions in Revenue From Pilgrim. Forbes, [online]. Dalam: https://www.forbes.com/sites/katiesola/2016/01/05/saudi-arabia-iran/#4d9839b94c35 [Diakses: 9 April 2020].

Sulaeman, D, Y. (2020). wawancara, Bandung. Direktur Indonesia Center for Middle East Studies.

Takeyh, R. (2009). Guardians of the Revolution: Iran and the World in the Age of the Ayatollahs. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Terrill, W. A. (2011). The Saudi-Iranian rivalry and the future of Middle East security. [online] Army War College. Dalam: https://publications.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/2167.pdf [Diakses 22 Februari 2021].

UN, (2014). Summary of HE Hassan Rouhani Speech. [online] Dalam: https://gadebate.un.org/en/69/iran-islamic-republic [Diakses 4 Januari 2021].

Published
2021-06-29
How to Cite
Bajri, H., & Akim, A. (2021). Domestic Factors Affecting Iran’s Foreign Policy towards Saudi Arabia Post Execution of Nimr Al Nimr. Jurnal ICMES, 5(1), 108-124. https://doi.org/10.35748/jurnalicmes.v5i1.92

Most read articles by the same author(s)