Systems Thinking in the Massive Feminism Movement

Examining the Digital Narrative War in the Middle East

  • Tika Tazkya Nurdyawati Universitas Padjadjaran
Keywords: digital movement, feminism, Middle East, narratives war, systems thinking



The equality agenda that is developing massively in the Western world is often transmitted gradually to the Middle East Region. In its early stages, feminism entered into a scientific methodology, paradigm, and concern. Then, feminism spread multidimensionally to the political realm. In the contemporary era, feminism exists as a movement facilitated by digitization. There are two camps as actors who are at war with each other in narratives: 1) Muslim feminists, and 2). Muslim counter-feminist. This article aims to explore the roots of the differences in the premises of the two camps which are equally legitimized by religious references. This article uses a qualitative method with a systems thinking framework attached to the mental model of the Causal Loop Diagram. This research refers to the theory of the narrative’s ability to mobilize public opinion and produce war virtually. The findings of this article find that there are different interpretation schemes between the two camps in religious understanding.


Abu-Lughod, L. (2001). Orientalism and Middle East Feminist Studies. Feminist Studies, [online] 27(1). Dalam: [Diakses 10 Mei 2020].

Aline, S. (2015). Digital activism for women’s rights in the Arab World. 1–18. [online] Dalam:'s%20rights%20in%20the%20Arab%20World.pdf [Diakses 15 Mei 2022].

Allen, W., & Kilvington, M. (n.d.). An introduction to systems thinking and systemic design concepts and tools. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 10 Mei 2022].

Alva, A. (2020). Perempuan Arab Saudi dari Waktu ke Waktu. [online] Faktual News. Dalam: [Diakses 10 Mei 2022].

Alzahrani, Y. (n.d.). Saudi Arabia and the Arab spring: Reshaping saudi security doctrine. Naif Arab University for Security Sciences. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 22 Mei 2022].

Andika, T. (2014). Perlindungan Kedaulatan Negara di Bidang Informasi Dalam Aktivitas Penyadapan Antar Negara Berdasarkan Hukum Internasional dan Hukum Nasional. [online] Program Magister Ilmu Hukum Fakultas Hukum Universitas Padjajaran. Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Arnold, R. D., & Wade, J. P. (2015). A definition of systems thinking: A systems approach. Procedia Computer Science, [online] 44(C), 669–678. Dalam: [Diakses 12 April 2022].

Asseburg, M. (2012). Protest, Revolt and Regime Change in the Arab World. SWP Research Paper, February, 15–17. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 10 Maret 2022].

Avaaz. (n.d.). Avaaz RIP Amina Petition. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 5 Maret 2022].

Baker, A. (2012). Manal Al-Sharif - The World’s 100 Most Influential People. [online] Dalam:,29239,2111975_2111976_2112132,00.html [Diakses 10 Maret 2022].

Barker-Plummer, B., & Barker-Plummer, D. (2017). Twitter as a Feminist Resource: #YesAllWomen, Digital Platforms, and Discursive Social Change (Issue December). [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 Maret 2022].

Behrooz, A. (2016). 10 Must Read Women Writers From The Middle East. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 9 Maret 2022].

Bruer, J., Went, R., & Quandt, T. (2012). Digital War: An empirical analysis of narrative element in military first-person Shooters. Journal of Gaming & Vitrual Worlds, [online] 4(3), 215–237. Dalam: 1386 [Diakses 10 Februari 2022].

Byrnes, A., & Freeman, M. (2012). The Impact of the CEDAW Convention: Paths to Equality. [online] World Development Report Gender Equality and Development. Dalam: [Diakses 5 Januari 2022].

Boizot, J. (2019). Feminism and media, opportunities and limitations of digital practice. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 10 Januari 2022].

Chakim, S. (2010). Interkoneksitas Feminisme Muslim dan Gerakan Pemmbaharuan di Timur Tengah. YINYANG Jurnal Studi Gender & Anak, [online] Vol. 5, No.2. Dalam: [Diakses 20 Januari 2022].

Chomsky, N. (2006). Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy. Canada: American Empire Project

Colley, T. (2015). Strategic Narratives, Public Opinion and War: Winning Domestic Support for the Afghan War. Media, War & Conflict, [online] Vol. 9(2). Dalam: 10.1177 [Diakses 1 Januari 2022].

Dimitriu, G., & de Graaf, B. (2015). Strategic Narratives, Public Opinion and War: Winning domestic support for Afghan War (Contemporary Security Studies). London: Routledge.

Fadel Fahmy, M. (2012). Egyptian Blogger Aliaa Elmahdy: Why I Posed Naked. [online] CNN. Dalam: [Diakses 1 Januari 2022].

Fanenbruck, G. (2010). The Role of New Media in Protest Organisation: A Case Study of “The Wave” climate change protest in London, UK, 5th December 2009. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Glas, S., & Alexander, A. (2020). Explaining Support for Muslim Feminism in the Arab Middle East and North Africa. SAGE Journals, [online] Vol 34, No (gender & Society). Dalam: [Diakses 10 Februari 2022].

Harding, S. (1986). The Science Question in Feminism. New York: Cornell University.

Jazzar, R. (2011). The Egyptian Women’s Movement Identity Politics and the Process of Liberation in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 Januari 2022].

Kandiyoti, D., Hammami, R., & Taraki, L. (1995). Gender and Feminist Scholarship in the Middle East (1995). Gender and Society-Working Papers. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 10 Maret 2022].

Knutsen, E. (2013). After Girl’s Death, Morocco Will Change Rape Laws. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 Maret 2022].

Kruglova, A. (2020). I Will Tell You the Story about Jihad”: ISIS’ Propaganda and Narrative Advertising. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, [online] 44(2), 1–23. Dalam: [Diakses 23 Maret 2022].

Lalami, L. (2012). A Rape Victim’s Suicide Proves Morocco’s Culture of Silence Must Go. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 10 Maret 2022].

Liloia, A. (2019). Perempuan Arab Saudi sedang berjuang untuk kebebasan - dan kesuksesan mereka. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 23 Maret 2022].

Muhammad, H. (2014). Islam dan Pendidikan Perempuan. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, [online] 3(2), 231. Dalam: [Diakses 20 Maret 2022].

OECD. (2018). Empowering women in the digital age. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Qodarsasi, U. (2014). Penyelesaian Kasus Kekerasan Terhadap Tenaga Kerja Wanita Indonesia di Malaysia Melalui Implementasi Konvensi CEDAW PBB 1979. Palastren Jurnal Studi Gender, [online] 7(1), 169–192. Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Rickli, J., & Kaspersen, A. (2016). The Global War of Narratives and the Social Media. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Sarasi, V., Yulianti, D., & Farras, J. I. (2014). Pengantar Berpikir Sistem. Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents, Vol. 5, Issue 2.

Sherwood, D. (2002). Seeing The Forest for The Trees. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Sugiyono, S. (2013). Feminisme di Dunia Muslim: Menguak Akar Perdebatan antara Paham Konservatif dan Reformis. Thaqafiyyat, [online] Vol. 14. No. 1. Dalam: [Diakses 22 Mei 2022].

Trochim, W. M., Donnelly, J. P., & Arora, K. (2016). Research Methods. Boston: CENGAGE Learning.

UNDP. (2020). The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene. Human Development Report 2020, 130–158. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Whitcher, R. (2005). The effects of western feminist ideology on Muslim feminists. [online] Dalam: [Diakses 23 Mei 2022].

Younis, M. (2007). Daughters of the Nile: The Evolution of Feminism in Egypt. Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice, [online] 13(2), 9. Dalam: [Diakses 20 April 2022].

Zion-Waldoks, T. (2014). Politics of Devoted Resistance: Agency, Feminism, and Religion among Orthodox Agunah Activists in Israel. Gender & Society, [online] 29(1): 73-97. Dalam: [Diakses 25 April 2022].

How to Cite
Nurdyawati, T. (2022). Systems Thinking in the Massive Feminism Movement. Jurnal ICMES, 6(1), 35-58.