Kebijakan Luar Negeri U-turn Yordania Terhadap Suriah Pasca-Perang Melawan Terorisme

  • Dyah Purbo Arum Larasati Pekanbaru
Kata Kunci: kebijakan luar negeri u-turn, Suriah, teori two level games, terorisme, Yordania

Abstrak

Yordania merupakan salah satu negara Arab yang berperan penting dalam perang di Suriah. Perang tersebut berawal dari aksi-aksi demo antipemerintah Suriah pada tahun 2011, lalu berubah menjadi konflik bersenjata setelah terbentuknya milisi-milisi bersenjata yang berafiliasi dengan Al Qaida; dan berlanjut dengan terbentuknya ISIS pada tahun 2013.  Saat ini Suriah telah berhasil memenangkan peperangan melawan terorisme tersebut, meskipun sebagian kecil wilayah di Suriah masih dikuasai milisi-milisi teroris. Sejak tahun 2021, negara-negara Arab yang semula memberikan dukungan kepada milisi bersenjata terlihat memutar balik (u-turn) kebijakan luar negerinya, yaitu kembali melakukan upaya normalisasi dengan Suriah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan alasan normalisasi hubungan diplomasi yang dilakukan Yordania terhadap Suriah. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori two level games Robert D. Putnam dan dilakukan dengan kualitatif, dengan mengumpulkan data melalui studi literatur dan wawancara dengan aktivis kemanusiaan di Suriah. Temuan penelitian ini adalah bahwa keputusan Yordania untuk memutar balik kebijakan luar negerinya terhadap Suriah memiliki dua tujuan. Pertama, Yordania ingin memperbaiki masalah domestiknya, yaitu keterpurukan ekonomi, yang salah satunya terjadi akibat derasnya pengungsi; masalah keamanan; ketersediaan air. Kedua, Yordania ingin mencapai target internasional, dimana Yordania yang merupakan aliansi Barat ingin mengurangi pengaruh Iran di kawasan Timur Tengah.

Referensi

Al Arabiya News. (2012). France Gives Non-Lethal Military Aid to Syrian Opposition: PM. [online]. Dalam: https://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/08/22/233570 [diakses 22 Desember 2021]

Al-Khalidi, S. (2021a). Protest Jordanians against Water for Energy deal with Israel. Nasdaq, [online]. Dalam: https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/jordanians-protest-against-water-for-energy-deal-with-israel [diakses 28 November 2021].

Al-Khalidi, S. (2021b). Jordan’s Abdullah Receives first Call from Syria’s Assad since Start of Conflict. Reuters, [online]. Dalam: https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/jordans-abdullah-receives-first-call-syrias-assad-since-start-conflict-2021-10-03/ [diakses 27 Oktober 2021].

Arraf, J. (2021). Royal Drama Unfolds in Court, but A Prince at the Center of It Is Absent. New York Times, [online]. Dalam: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/26/world/middleeast/jordan-bassem-awadallah-trial-prince-hamzah.html [diakses 14 November 2021].

Asharq Al-Awsat, (2021). Secret Document for Normalization of Ties with Damascus Includes Exit of Foreign Forces. Aawsat, [online]. Dalam: https://english.aawsat.com/home/article/3300336/secret-document-normalization-ties-damascus-includes-exit-foreign-forces [diakses 14 November 2021].

Awadallah, B, I. (2015). Jordan's Five Biggest Challenges, from ISIS to The Palestinian Question. CNN, [online]. Dalam: https://edition.cnn.com/2015/06/23/opinions/jordan-five-challenges/index.html [diakses 27 Oktober 2021].

Bartlett, E. (2021). Western Media Quick to Accuse Syria of 'Bombing Hospitals' - But When Terrorists Really Destroy Syrian Hospitals, They Are Silent. Reuters, [online]. Dalam: https://www.rt.com/op-ed/519071-syria-msm-bombing-hospitals/ [diakses 20 Oktober 2021].

Beeley, V. (2020). As Syria Struggles Under Covid-19 Lockdown, America’s Scorched Earth Policy Ensures Food Insecurity. Mint Press, [online]. Dalam: https://www.mintpressnews.com/as-syria-struggles-under-covid-19-lockdown-americas-scorched-earth-policy-ensures-food-insecurity/269376/ [diakses 20 Oktober 2021].

Dabin, B. (2021). US Occupation Continues to Loot Syrian Grain from Hasaka. SANA, [online]. Dalam: http://www.sana.sy/en/?p=217135 [diakses 27 Oktober 2021].

Department of Statistic, (2021). External Trade. [online] Dalam: http://dosweb.dos.gov.jo/economic/externaltrade/ [diakses 26 November 2021].

Ersan, M. (2021). Jordan and Syria Put Politics Aside and Begin Rebuilding Diplomatic Links. [online] Middle East Eye. Dalam: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/syria-jordan-diplomatic-ties-rebuild-politics-aside [diakses 30 Oktober 2021].

Griffiths, M,. dkk. (2002). International Relations: The Key Concepts Second Edition. London and New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group

Haboush, J. (2021). US Talking to Egypt, Jordan to Help Lebanon’s Fuel, Energy Needs: Senior US Diplomat. [online] Al Arabiya. Dalam: https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2021/08/19/US-to-help-Lebanon-with-electricity-Lebanese-presidency [diakses 20 November 2021].

Heller, S. (2021). Lights on in Lebanon: Limiing the Fallout from U.S. Sanctions on Syria. War on The Rocks, [online]. Dalam: https://warontherocks.com/2021/11/lights-on-in-lebanon-limiting-the-fallout-from-u-s-sanctions-on-syria/ [diakses 20 November 2021].

Helmy, N. (2021). Chinese and Gulf States Rapprochement with Syria. [online] Modern Diplomacy. Dalam: https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/11/25/chinese-and-gulf-states-rapprochement-with-syria/amp/ [diakses 17 November 2021].

Henkel, S, C. (2020). The Difficult Normalisation of Relations between Arab Countries and Bashar al–Assad. [online] SWP. Dalam: https://www.swp-berlin.org/10.18449/2020JR01/ [diakses 16 November 2021].

Human Right Watch, (2016). Barriers to Education for Syrian Refugee Children in Jordan. [online]. Dalam: https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/08/16/were-afraid-their-future/barriers-education-syrian-refugee-children-jordan [diakses 27 Oktober 2021].

Ignatius, D. (2012). Looking for a Syrian Endgame. Washington Post, [online]. Dalam: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/david-ignatius-syria-approaches-the-tipping-point/2012/07/18/gJQAFoCvtW_story.html [diakses 16 November 2021].

Jordan News Agency, (2021). Jordanian–Syrian Joint Free Zone Reopened Today. [online] Dalam: https://petra.gov.jo/Include/InnerPage.jsp?ID=39325〈=en&name=en_news [diakses 21 November 2021].

Kilani, A. (2021). Jordan’s Diplomacy in Syria, Part 1. [online] Mews Line Institute. Dalam: https://newlinesinstitute.org/syria/jordans-diplomacy-in-syria-part-1/ [diakses 28 Oktober 2021].

Krasna, J. (2021). Jordan: With Relations with Washington and Jerussalem back in Order, a Flurry of Diplomatic Activity. Jurnal Tel Aviv Notes, [online]. Dalam: https://dayan.org/content/jordan-relations-washington-and-jerussalem-back-order-flurry-diplomatic-activity [diakses 20 November 2021].

Lister, C. (2021). Biden’s Inaction on Syria Risks Normalizing Assad-and His Crimes. Foreign Policy, [online]. Dalam: https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/10/08/biden-syria-policy-assad-war-crimes/ [diakses 18 November 2021].

Lucas, S. (2021). Report: Jordan’s Plan for Normalization with Assad–Iran Curbed in Syria, US to Withdraw, Russia Bolstered.EAWorld View, [online]. Dalam: https://eaworldview.com/2021/11/jordan-normalization-assad-syria-iran-us-russia/ [diakses 28 November 2021].

Mazzetti, M., Goldman, A., & Schmidt. (2017). Behind the Sudden Death of a 1$ Billion Secret C.I.A. War in Syria. New York Times, [online]. Dalam: https://www.nytimes.com/2017//08/02/world/middleeast/cia-syria-rebel-arm-train-trump.html [diakses 20 Desember 2021].

Mousa, B. (2014). Syrian Expatriates Launch Project to Offer Psychological Support for Children In Syria. [online] SANA. Dalam: http://sana.sy/en/?p=10036 [diakses 27 Oktober 2021].

Oudat, M. A., dan Alshboul, A. (2010). “Jordan First”: Tribalism, Nationalism and Legitimacy of Power in Jordan. Intellectual Discourse, 18, 65-96.

Oweis, K, Y. (2021). Syria Minister Says Electricity Line with Jordan Being Repaired. The National News, [online]. Dalam: https://www.thenationalnews.com/mena/jordan/2021/10/06/syrian-minister-says-electricity-line-with-jordan-being-repaired/?outputType=amp [diakses 16 November 2021].

Prabowo, A. (2018). Kebijakan Indonesia dalam Menangani Pengungsi Rohingya Pada Masa Pemerintahan Joko Widodo (2014–2016). [online] UII. Dalam: https://dspace.uii.ac.id/handle/123456789/11794 [diakses 14 November 2021].

Putnam, R, D. (1988). Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two Level Games. Cambridge: The MIT Press

Rozoff, R. (2012). Are Turkey and NATO Contemplating A Military Intervention Against Syria Ahead the Chicago Summit? [online] Global Research. Dalam: https://www.globalresearch.ca/are-turkey-and-nato-contemplating-a-military-intervention-against-syria-ahead -of-the-chicago-summit/30328 [diakses 27 Oktober 2021].

Sanchez, V, S. (2021). Normalization with Syria ‘a Breakthrough’ for Jordan’s Regional Role. [online] Amwaj Media. Dalam: https://amwaj.media/article/normalisation-with-assad-how-it-impacts-jordan-s-ties-with-ksa-and-the-uae [diakses 20 November 2021].

Saukani, M, I. (2020). Konsistensi Kebijakan Yordani Untuk Tetap Menawarkan Solusi Dua Negara dalam Konflik Israel-Palestina. [online] UII. Dalam: https://dspace.uii.ac.id/handle/123456789/28434 [Diakses 23 Agustus 2021].

Sharif, O, Al. (2021a). Is Jordan’s Energy Diplomacy a Step Towards Normalising Syria’s Regime? [online] English Al Araby. Dalam: https://english.alaraby.co.uk/analysis/jordans-energy-diplomacy-gateway-normalising-assad?amp [diakses 20 November 2021].

Sharif, O, Al. (2021b). Why Washington has Provided King Abdullah with Political Cover to Engage the Assad Regime. [online] Mei@75. Dalam: https://www.mei.edu/publications/why-washington-has-provided-king-abdullah-political-cover-engage-assad-regime [diakses 20 Desember 2021].

Southfront, (2021). Military Situation in Syria on December 1, 2021 (Map Update). [online]. Dalam: https://southfront.org/military-situation-in-syria-on-december-1-2021-map-update/ [diakses 2 Desember 2021].

Sulaeman, D, Y. (2017). Salju di Aleppo. Jakarta Selatan: PT Mitra Media Mustika dan ICMES Publisher

Svetlova, K. (2021). Can the Arab Countries Squeeze Iran Out of Syria? [online] The Media Line. Dalam: https://themedialine.org/top-stories/can-the-arab-countries-squeeze-iran-out-of-syria/ [diakses 27 November 2021].

Sweis, R, F. (2021). Resentment Grows Against Syrian Refugees in Jordan. New York Times, [online]. Dalam: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/09/world/middleeast/09iht-m09-jordan-syria.html [diakses 28 Oktober 2021].

Tehran Times. (2021a). Iran–Syria Cooperation Continues at Highest Level: Ambassador. [online]. Dalam: https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/467465/Iran-Syria-cooperation-continues-at-highest-level-ambassador [diakses 26 November 2021].

Tehran Times. (2021b). Iran-Syria Ties Stronger Than Ever. [online]. Dalam https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/467277/Iran-Syria-ties-stronger-than-ever [diakses 26 November 2021].

The Free Press Journal. (2021). Huge Protests in Amman against Jordan–Israel Solar Power for Water Deal. [online]. Dalam: https://www.freepressjournal.in/amp/world/huge-protests-in-amman-against-jordan-israel-solar-power-for-water-deal [diakses 1 Desember 2021].

The Syrian Observer. (2021). Why Jordan is Pushing to Normalize Ties with the Syrian Regime. [online]. Dalam: https://syrianobserver.com/features/68630/why-jordan-is-pushing-to-normalise-ties-with-the-syrian-regime.html [diakses 16 November 2021].

Tokmajyan, A. (2021). Thwarting Jordan’s Bahhara Trade with Syria Risks Social Unrest in Ramtha. [online] Carnegie MEC. Dalam: https://carnegie-mec.org/2021/04/19/thwarting-jordan-s-bahhara-trade-with-syria-risks-social-unrest-in-ramtha-pub-84351 [diakses 12 Oktober 2021].

United Nations. (2015). Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution 2254 (2015), Endorsing Road Map for Peace Process in Syria, Setting Timetable for Talks, [online]. Dalam: https://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc12171.doc.htm [diakses 15 November 2021]

US Department of State. (2020). Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act. [online]. Dalam: https://2017-2021.state.gov/caesar-syria-civilian-protection-act/index.html [diakses 22 Desember 2021]

Diterbitkan
2021-12-24